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استان شماره گیرنده
انسان در مخمصه Human Predicament
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As it is true with the composition of literature of any nation that contemporary socio-political and cultural situations largely determine its course and development, it is truer with the American literature. Even a superficial review of the American literature would convince that the contemporary social, cultural and economic scene which is one of great complexity and diversity is fully reflected in the literature of the age. It is the age characterized by the revolts and reversals so that the common man and his aspirations find increasing expression in literature. With the passing of time this complexity and intricacy continues to increase owing to various causes, which include influences from the other side of the Atlantic. Chief among such influences are the teachings of the new psychology of Freud, Jung and Bergson and teachings of Karl Marx and his followers. Rapid industrialization and urbanization bring with them their own problems and difficulties that color the literature of the new century. The anxiety, boredom, the sense of remorse and loneliness and neurosis, caused by these developments find their own place in literature. The two world wars proved to be fatal experiences for the Americans and created a kind of vacuum for them. There was loss of faith in traditional values and the result was frustration and pessimism. Literary output has been abundant in the modern period, but there has been continuous rise and fall in literary standards as well. The literary, cultural and social life of the nation is further influenced by the advent of means of locomotion, the radio, the motion picture, and the rapid electrification even of the countryside. The currents and cross currents in function, and Williams introduces such oppositional patterns to reveal the mutual influence and thereby human predicament. He depicts certain characters to embody these oppositions, makes them obsessed and finally shows the disastrous consequence in the form of human predicament.  While exploring these two oppositional patterns, I have chiefly relied on character revelation because it is in the characterization that we discover human predicament. I have selected only five plays for the consideration because they represent the dramatic world of Williams and more importantly they dramatize the theme readily accessible to the opposition pattern employed. They are: The Glass Menagerie, A Street Car Named Desire, Summer and Smoke, Cat On a Hot Tin Roof, and Orpheus Descending. The discussion is divided in four chapters. The first chapter is introductory in nature and attempts to present a brief account of the American drama and dramatic world of Tennessee Williams in particular. It briefly outlines the significance of human predicament and the ensuing oppositional patterns. The next two chapters form the core part of discussion as they present in depth analysis of the theme in the selected plays. The last chapter offers overall assessment of the study.
Hope the present study is illuminating to those interested in drama in general and Williams’ in particular, specaily the students of drama and English literature

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فهرست مطالب

  • فصل اول: مقدمه
  • فصل دوم: دیلمام بین ILLUSION و واقعی: مداد شیشه ای و یک خیابان نامنظم
  • فصل سوم: درگیری بین فلاش و روح و جسم: تابستان و دود، سحر و جادو بر روی یک قاشق چایخوری و سقوط آرتف
  • فصل چهارم: ارزیابی
  • فصل پنجم: انتخاب کتابشناسی


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نام مهمان

تاریخ ۰۵:۱۱ ۹۸.۰۹.۲۱

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